The salivary glands make saliva and empty it into your mouth through openings called ducts. Saliva helps with swallowing and chewing. It also can help prevent infections from developing in your mouth or throat. There are two sorts of salivary glands: the main salivary glands. Salivary glands are essential structures within the mouth. Spread of diseases, like cancer, autoimmune diseases, infections and physical traumas, can alter the functionality of those glands, greatly impacting the standard of lifetime of patients. Exocrine gland branching morphogenesis involves coordinated cell growth, proliferation, differentiation, migration, apoptosis, and interaction of epithelial, mesenchymal, endothelial, and neuronal cells in this article we’ll discuss about anatomical, Cytology, Mechanism, Biosynthesis, growth and redevelopment of exocrine gland and histopathology of exocrine gland tumor. To determine the analysis of cytology, mechanism, Biosynthesis and redevelopment of salivary glands and histology of salivary gland tumors. Descriptive cross-sectional study. Basic Medical Sciences Department, Khost Shiekhzayed University, Khost Southeastern Afghanistan from January 2018 to March 2020. A descriptive Prospective cross sectional studydone in Anatomy Department was carried out from January 2018 to March 2020 by accessing the subjects having Salivary gland evaluation done and filling the designed proforma. This research involved accessing the salivary gland in subjects’s visiting in the Khost Shiekh Zayed University Khost Afghanistan. All the patients having age 16 years to 80 years irrespective of their sex, suffering from some Salivary gland problem were included in the study while those who presented for follow-up, Immune-compromised patients, getting anti-cancer treatment were excluded from the study. The data was analyzed by SPSS version 23. Distribution of Salivary gland tumors in gender indicated that the Significant salivary gland tumors were found in females (52.9%) while 12 males reported salivary gland tumors. Out of 29, (15.8%) males reported pleomorphic Adenoma, while (24.2%) females had pleomorphic adenoma .This was followed by Pleomorphous low grade carcinoma, (5.2%) respondents in males and EX Pleomorphic adenoma (3.4%) in females and EX Pleomorphic adenoma, (4.5%) males and (5.8%) females. Salivary glands, therefore, represent a major player in the maintenance of oral homeostasis and their study might shed light in more general disorders such as cancer, inflammation and healing upon mechanical traumas. Overall, their accessibility and heterogeneous histology provide an ideal structure to improve our understanding of tissue remodeling and interaction between cells and surrounding microenvironment. Data of 29 Subjects of Salivary Gland Tumors were documented, of which 39 (69.16%) cases were classified as Malignent tumors and 61 (22.39%) cases as Bengin tumors. Female TO male ratio (F/M) and the mean age of Respondent were 2:3.5 and 46 years, correspondingly. Pleomorphic adenoma (61.82%) and adenoid cystic carcinoma (39.17%) were the most common benign and malignant neoplasms. Although the exocrine gland tumors encountered were similar in most of their characteristics to those reported in asia and other countries, some differences like frequency, age and gender prevalence were revealed. Exocrine gland represent a serious player within the maintenance of oral homeostasis and their study might shed light in additional general disorders like cancer, inflammation and healing upon mechanical traumas. Overall, their accessibility and heterogeneous histology provide a perfect structure to enhance our understanding of tissue remodeling and interaction between cells and surrounding microenvironment. Additionally to studies on the molecular control of the exocrine function, salivary glands are often used as a platform to research the physiology of epithelium, the dynamic of the somatic cell niche and basic developmental processes. Thus, future studies on salivary glands could be impactful to a spread of subjects and application in biomedicine.Keywords:
Salivary gland-resident stem cells, oral epithelium, salivary glands and tumors.