Prevalence, Risk Factors and Treatment Outcomes of Acute Asthma Exacerbations in Rural South-Western Nigeria: A Three-year Retrospective Observational Study

January 2023 | JRMMS

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Published: 30 January 2023


There is increasing evidence that asthma-related morbidity and mortality may be greater in older population due to greater risk of coexisting co-morbidities. The study ascertained the prevalence, risk factors, and treatment outcomes of asthma exacerbation admissions at a tertiary hospital in rural southwestern Nigeria. A retrospective observational survey using data form and pre-determined questionnaire was used to review the patients admitted for asthma exacerbation between January 2019 and December 2021. The data were analyzed using SPSS Version 22.0. The results were presented in descriptive and tabular formats. A p-value of <0.05 was used to determine the significant of association. A total of 102 asthma patients were studied. The prevalence of asthma exacerbation was 5.1%, and its risk factors were family history (p = 0.032 ), tobacco smoking (p = 0.040), keeping pets (p = 0.028), co-morbidity (p=0.001), numbers of co-morbidities (p<0.001), hypertension (p<0.001), obesity (p<0.001), obstructive sleep apnea (p=0.004), COPD (P<0.001), Diabetes mellitus (p<0.001), and gastro-esophageal reflux disease (p=0.037).The treatment outcomes showed that 85.3% of the patients were discharged, 11.8% DAMA, and 2.9% died on admission. The study strengthens the argument that asthma exacerbation morbidity and mortality are higher in older age population. The results may provide an impetus for asthma preventive intervention, control strategies, and future research in the study area.


Asthma exacerbation, Prevalence, Risk factors, Rural Nigeria, Treatment outcomes

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